Rhythmic phenomena do not repeat completely at the end of the rhythm of the state of nature, which was at the beginning.
Rhythmic phenomena do not repeat completely at the end of the rhythm of the state of nature, which was at the beginning.Longer rhythms (11, 22-23, 80-90 years, etc.) associated with the pulsation of solar radiation and other cosmic and geological factors are important for predicting changes in the natural environment over time. Rhythmic phenomena do […]

Rhythmic phenomena do not repeat completely at the end of the rhythm of the state of nature, which was at the beginning.

Longer rhythms (11, 22-23, 80-90 years, etc.) associated with the pulsation of solar radiation and other cosmic and geological factors are important for predicting changes in the natural environment over time. Rhythmic phenomena do not repeat completely at the end of the rhythm of the state of nature, which was at the beginning.

Planetary geographical pattern is the pattern of change of natural complexes in the direction from the equator to the poles, ie latitudinal zonation. It is caused by the receipt of different amounts of heat and light at different latitudes due to the spherical shape of the Earth. Zoning covers all natural components.

The largest territorial zonal formations are geographical zones. They stand out both on land and in the oceans and extend in the latitudinal direction. In geographical zones there are natural zones, the names of which determine the type of vegetation. In mountainous areas there is a high-altitude zonation - a change in natural components and natural complexes in the direction from the bottom to the top. It is caused by climate change with altitude, lower temperatures and up to a certain height increase in precipitation.

Conclusion: Therefore, the emergence of socioecology can not be considered a coincidence. It is a reaction of the human mind to the real processes taking place on our planet and threatening the continued existence of mankind.

At the turning points of history, human society has repeatedly faced burning life problems, the solution of which depended on its future. It was these problems that led to the emergence of new sciences that helped humanity find a way out of a seemingly hopeless situation. The progressive destruction of the Earth's biosphere by irrational economic activity has led to the emergence of the science of harmonizing the interaction of society and nature - socioecology.

Simultaneously with the formation of socio-ecology as an independent science, large-scale measures are being taken around the world to overcome the global socio-ecological crisis. Recognizing the general threat of destabilization of the global socio-ecosystem, humanity must seek to convey this by mobilizing political will, wisdom and knowledge at different levels of government, in government and civic structures, research laboratories and production teams, environmental governmental and non- governmental organizations.

States, regardless of their geographical location, level of socio-economic development, political system, must adopt radical laws and decisions in the field of environmental protection and environmental management, participate in international, regional, multilateral and bilateral organizations, develop and implement various projects and programs in the field of protection and rational use of the environment.

The higher the degree of integration of global efforts in this direction, the deeper the scientific socio-ecological substantiation of all recommendations in the general sphere, the sooner these measures will bring the expected results.

10.07.2011

Radionuclide contamination of the pressure aquifer as a result of the Chornobyl disaster. Abstract

Water samples taken for radiochemical and chemical analyzes were taken from seventeen wells. Radiometry was performed on the content of tritium and strontium - 90. As can be seen, none of the inspected wells gives an increased content of strontium - 90 and tritium

Hydrochemical studies of operating wells of the Pripyat water intake were carried out to establish radionuclide contamination of the pressure aquifer. An increased content of strontium was registered - 90 in the waters of economic drinking value, extracted by the Pripyat water intake from the pressure aquifer in the Eocene sediments. In 1991, there was a general increase in strontium content - 90 from 0.036 to tenths of Bq per liter of water, and in July the maximum concentration of strontium - 90 reached about 1 Bq / liter.

Water samples taken for radiochemical and chemical analyzes were taken from seventeen wells. Radiometry was performed for the content of tritium and strontium - 90. As can be seen, none of the surveyed wells gives an increased content of strontium - 90 and tritium. This allows us to conclude that so far the aquifer in the Eocene sediments is not contaminated with radionuclides (PH).

Table 1. The content of tritium and strontium-90 in water samples from wells of the Pripyat water intake, Bq / l

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N / a

Number

Samples

Number

Wells

Tritium

Strontium-90

Activity

Absolute error

Activity

Absolute

error

one

2

3

four

five

6

7

8

9

ten

eleven

12

thirteen

14

15

16

17

20

21

22

28

29

fifty

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

9

8

7

6

five

thirteen

eleven

14

15

16

20

17

23

24

one

25

26

1.9

3.64

-

3.25

0.13

0.39

0.35

0.013

0.0184

0.0148

0.0019

0.013

0.0011

Chemical analysis was performed by the Institute of Geological Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and its results are presented in Table 1.

The fact of increased NaCl content in relatively isolated aquifers of Eocene sediments allows us to speak about the possibility of migration of strontium - 90 and other PH to water intake wells in case of contamination of the pressureless aquifer.

Water analysis of the Kyiv reservoir.

To determine the qualitative and quantitative pH content in the river water of the reservoir, water samples were taken in the upper reaches and at the confluence of river reservoirs (Dnieper, Pripyat, Teterev), as well as from the Chernobyl cooling lake. Hydrochemical parameters of river water vary depending on the flow velocity (table 2).

Table 2. Hydrochemical characteristics of river water in the Kyiv reservoir.

Components

Hydrochemical parameters 103, kg / m3

Pripyat

Dnieper

The mouth of the Teterev River

Kyiv.

Water-still

Chernobyl

Mouth

m. Komarin

Mouth

PH

Nzag

NH4

Norg

Pzag

Porg

PO43-

Dichromatn

Oxid.

O2

CO2

Fezag

Fevzv

Ferozch

Ca2 +

Mg2 +

At ++ K +

Cl-

SO42-

HCO3-

CO32-

7.6

1.12

0.86

0.26

0.11

0.05

0.06

35.6

7.9

7.0

0.60

0.50

0.10

43.9

9.1

20.0

26.3

22.8

154.2

0.0

7.7

1.54

1.17

0.37

0.15

0.06

0.09

39.3

6.2

8.2

0.61

0.48

0.13

50.4

8.6

18.2

25.8

20.0

137.1

0.0

7.6

1.12

0.69

0.43

0.12

0.05

0.07

29.1

9.2

0.0

0.44

0.36

0.08

43.4

12.4

32.5

27.7

27.1

180.1

6.0

7.4

1.54

0.97

0.57

0.15

0.06

0.09

36.8

6.4

7.0

0.40

0.30

0.40

50.9

9.4

24.3

27.0

21.6

158.7

0.0

7.6

1.71

0.91

0.80

0.13

0.05

0.08

28.6

6.3

12.3

0.85

0.64

0.21

52.9

10.3

25.0

34.1

30.4

177.0

0.0

7.6

2.0

0.63

1.37

0.15

0.06

0.10

32.3

7.9

0.0

0.50

0.40

0.08

43.4

8.8

18.0

22.7

24.9

137.4

6.0

The composition of total and organic nitrogen and phosphorus, the rate of biochromatic oxidation increases from the upper reaches to the confluence of the Kiev river reservoir. At the same time, at a stable pH, the content of dissolved oxygen in these places decreases and then increases slightly in the area of ​​the gateway. As for inorganic cations and anions, they are characterized by a decrease in their content in the mouth.

In the reservoir due to a sharp decrease in the flow rate increases the amount of soluble organic matter (POP) and decreases the content of soluble substances of inorganic nature (PPP). POP of natural origin is represented by high-molecular compounds of humic nature - fulvic and humic acids.

The radionuclides that got into natural waters as a result of the accident are in different phase states. The most migratory are volatile fission products and condensates of different composition. These forms can interact with water to become soluble. The amount of POP in the samples of summer water, taken on June 6, 8, 1986, was 4 Mg / l, curtains - 20 Mg / l. The activity of Ce in the water of the Kyiv reservoir was in the range of 1.09 - 4.12 Bq / l and reached 25.82 Bq / l in the water of the bypass channel of the ChNPP cooler, Se - 1.42 - 8.11 and up to 28.14 Bq / l, respectively (Table 3).

Table 3. Distribution between ROP, RRN and suspensions in river water of the Kyiv reservoir.

Radionuclides

Group speech.

The pH content in the samples, Bq / l

Pripyat

Dnieper

Teterev

mouth

Kyiv.

Water-still

The channel of the lake is cold

Chernobyl

Mouth

Mosquito

Mouth

141Ce

144Ce

103Ru

106Ru

131I

134Cs

137Cs

140La

95Nb

95Zr

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

POP

RRH

RZV

-

-

1.09

0.06

-

1.61

0.37

0.41

5.87

0.11

0.06

3.27

0.08

-

-

0.12

0.06

2.38

0.28

0.10

4.83

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.75

-

-

0.87

0.82

0.11

4.04

0.23

0.12

2.11

0.16

-

-

0.08

-

1.83

0.30

0.12

5.81

-

-

-

-

-

2.92

-

-

-

-

-

0.75

-

-

0.87

1.18

0.07

3.44

0.22

-

0.98

0.22

-

-

0.06

-

1.28

0.26

0.18

4.74

--

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.87

0.10

-

2.28

1.58

0.27

4.32

1.18

0.23

4.20

-

-

-

0.08

0.02

1.34

0.40

0.22

5.55

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.63

-

-

1.67

1.16

0.16

2.18

1.12

-

3.83

-

-

-

0.06

0.12

2.12

0.12

0.10

4.06

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.12

0.08

-

8.11

0.84

0.12

3.87

0.50

0.03

2.31

0.27

-

-

0.12

0.10

3.17

0.28

0.06

6.34

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25.82

1.87

-

28.14

2.21

0.23

23.86

1.34

0.28

16.22

-

-

-

7.54

0.94

210.28

6.19

1.00

251.06

3.35

0.11

26.50

-

-

7.39

-

-

14.88

The pH of cerium is contained mainly in the composition of curtains (95.6 - 100%), a small amount of 144Ce (1 - 4.4%) was found in the POP of river water. The content of 141Ce and 144Ce increases in the mouths of rivers and in places with weak currents.

The content of 103Ru in river water is in the range (3.50-6.65) Bq / l, 106Ru - (1.2-5.38) Bq / l. Ruthenium radionuclides are volatile compounds and therefore the proportion of their soluble forms increases sharply compared with 141, 144Ce.

The content of 131I in water is (0.08 ... 0.27) Bq / l. This RN is found only in the POP.

Based on the study data, it was found that the greatest integration damage can be caused by plutonium-239,240 isotopes, and strontium-90 also causes great damage.